By Rosalind Mitchison
A great quantity for a person in need of a brisk review of North Britain from the yr dot to the 20 th century.
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Extra resources for A History of Scotland
The duty must already have been very valuable. Berwick by then had the full paraphernalia of town government, by a mayor and four ‘praepositi’ (grieves) and twenty-four burgesses elected by the community, with a gild merchant to exercise her privileges and regulate the sales and industry of the town. Whenever there was peace a large proportion of Scotland’s trade went to England. Perhaps the expansion of trade and the growth in scale and activity of burghs is the explanation of the most mysterious feature of Scottish history in the Middle Ages, that Gaelic speech, having spread across almost the whole country by the 28 1100–1286 end of the eleventh century, should by the late thirteenth have been supplanted by English in much of the south and east.
Angevins. Alexander II (1214–49) and III (1249–80) were adequate for their function. If they did not play as big a part in reshaping the country’s institutions as their predecessors of the twelfth century, this was because that work had now been done. With peace on their southern frontier they could work at incorporating more fully the two areas of separatist traditions, the north and Galloway. William the Lion had intervened in the 11705 in a dispute between the sons of Fergus, Lord of Galloway, and had eventually secured the division of the lands, so that Galloway proper went to one claimant, and southern 1.
The Scottish version, though it appears to have had echoes circulating in 1299, was not written down in the form we have it till after 1320, and it is hard to place much credence on spirited back-chat recorded nearly two generations later. Both accounts agree that the English claim to suzerainty was made, and neither show it as accepted. With a disputed succession, something could now be done to clarify things in the English interest. Edward could play the game Scottish and English kings had played all through the twelfth century, that of taking advantage of each other’s weaknesses.
A History of Scotland by Rosalind Mitchison